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A Guide to Exosome Therapy

Saturday, January 07, 2023

What is an exosome?

Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles produced by eukaryotic cells. All human cells of the body release exosomes ex: immune cells, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, blood cells, stromal cells - all cell types secrete exosomes. Exosomes carry important content for transmitting biochemical signals. They are made by the millions inside the cell, in the endosomes that package proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, mRNA, miRNA, long noncoding RNA, circular RNA and other molecules into tiny intraluminal vesicles and release them to the outside of the cell. The secreted nanoparticles bind to cell surface markers on target cells and initiate a cascade of events leading to physiological change. Exosomes are the key messengers of intercellular communication.

What types of exosomes are used in medicine?

Role of exosomes varies from cell to cell. In clinical medicine, exosomes released by human stem cells have the most potent therapeutic effects. They carry information that signals repair and regeneration in many tissues of the body and have suppressive effects on degeneration. Stem cells are designed to replenish tissue with healthy cells, to repair and reprogram tissues. Stem cells release a health-potentiating secretome. 

Exosomes released by mesenchymal stem cells (most commonly used stem cell types) carry a biochemical cargo that is specialized for growth and regeneration of approximately 8 tissue types, many of which are found in the joints of the body. For this reason, MSC-derived exosomes are in high demand in orthopedics. 

Exosomes released by pluripotent stem cells, (the stem cell types produced by Stemaid Laboratories) contain a biochemical content that has therapeutic affinity to cell surface markers on all 220+ tissue types and is therefore effective in signaling cellular repair and reprogramming in every organ of the body. 

Exosomes released by certain immune cells are also being considered for therapeutic potential, ex: dendritic cell-derived exosomes for cancer therapy. Immune cells release nanoparticles that communicate with antigen presentation on target cancer cells. Dendritic cell-derived exosomes stimulate the immune system and elicit tumor regression in studies. 

How are exosomes made?

Exosomes, as a therapeutic injectable product, are made in a laboratory. They are nano-sized microvesicles that are made by stem cells and released form their intraluminal vesicles onto a nutrient rich cell culture supernatant. They are harvested from the media in which the stem cells grow. MSC-derived exosomes are used in clinical medicine in the United States. Pluripotent stem cells, produced by Stemaid Laboratories,  are a potent source of exosomes and love to grow in the nourishing cell culture supernatant, releasing the sought-after cell-reprogramming and multi-organ reparative exosomes by the billions. 

What are the benefits of applications of exosome therapy?

Unlike stem cell transplants used in stem cell therapy, exosomes are acellular and do not replicate, nor differentiate in the body. They simply carry a highly reparative, regenerative and reprogramming cargo to all tissues in the body. Given their small size (40-100nm), exosomes can travel to all parts of the body, cross the blood brain barrier, and carry their information through the tiniest of micro-capillaries to all tissues needed. Since exosomes are not cells, they can be safely used with all patients, including those on immunosuppressive medication or post organ transplant.  

Exosomes contain transcription factors that have multitude of benefits in the body. They are nuclear and mitochondrial DNA reparative, neurotrophic, angiogenic, anti-fibrotic, telomere elongating, pro-growth. They have immunomodulatory and suppressive effects on inflammatory immune cells and cytokines and help repair or regulate disease progression in chronic illnesses such as autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases, chronic pain, and musculoskeletal injuries. They modulate immune reactions via antigen modulation, antigen presentation, and immune cells homeostasis. Pluripotent exosomes contain cellular reprogramming factors, Yamanaka factors, that add an extra benefit of biological age reversal in human tissues. Potential of exosomes in therapeutics is vast. 

What happens during an exosome therapy treatment?

Exosome therapy is a revolutionary new treatment that has been gaining traction in the medical world. Applications of exosome therapy is often through an IV drip or via an injection to the target site. Exosomes attach to target cells in the body and transfer their payload, providing healing of injuries and degenerative conditions, as well as decreased pain and increased energy levels. Applications of exosome therapy are performed in an outpatient setting, and since these biological products are highly bio-compatible, they present a low risk of adverse reactions.

What are the Risks?

Exosomes are extracellular vesicles (EV) that have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. Their safety t record is very good. Since they are acellular, they do not present the risks of immunorejection and chimeric reactivity that some stem cells therapeutics have been concerned with. Despite the promising results from clinical experience, there may still be risks associated with exosome treatments, much like with any IV therapy. Applications of exosome therapy needs to be administered by  professional medical staff, much like any IV therapeutics. 

Do exosomes exacerbate cancer?

The answer to this questions requires a key distinction between cancer stem cells, healthy human stem cells and exosome-mediated cancer therapy.

Cancer stem cells produce exosomes, much like every eukaryotic human cell in the body (ex: stem cells, immune cells, natural killer cells, blood cells, stromal cells, endothelial cells, epithelial cells and so on). Tumor-derived exosomes are different in content from healthy stem cell exosomes and provide intercellular communication to tumor antigens that supports the cancer. Cancer cell-derived exosomes communicate with tumor antigens and contain information that supports the cancer to thrive. For instance, myeloma cells (ex: myeloid-derived suppressor cells, MDSCs) release factors in their exosomal secretome that can block cancer immunotherapy. Solid tumors tumor-derived exosomes serve the tumor, not the health of the body. 

PSC-derived exosomes (and MSC-derived exosomes), on the other hand have therapeutic potential. Their extracellular vesicles secrete transcription factors that have anti-tumor effects and create a microenvironment that treats cancer and prevents cancer formation. The potential of exosomes to treat cancer and their suppressive effect on cancer formation is well documented in research. Exosome-mediated transfer of pro-apoptotic and DNA repair transcription factors is being considered as the leading reparative mechanism. Please consult our document named  'Anti-tumor effects of Pluripotent stem cells' for further discussion on this important topic. 

Exosome-mediated cancer therapy refers to a drug or gene-therapy delivery strategy. Exosome engineering and novel exosome-mediated delivery of chemotherapeutics and gene therapy is an area of nanomedicine being actively developed in the field of oncology. Magnetic exosomes are also in the pipeline. These novel  therapeutics are not directly related to the specific therapeutic potential of exosome-mediated delivery of stem cell derived exosomes. 

What are Plurisomes™? 

Plurisomes™ are the extracellular vesicles released by pluripotent stem cells. They are pluripotent exosomes, the active messengers of pluripotency, signaling repair in all 220+ tissue types. 

They are cultured in a clean laboratory setting, an ideal in-vitro medium that is devoid of the inflammatory and degenerative millieu present in vivo. Given this nourishing environment, the Plurisomes contain highly specific messaging content involved in cell communications that lead to multi-tissue renewal and repair, including growth factors, peptides, messenger and micro RNA. They are the only extracellular vesicles that permit exosome-mediated delivery of Yamaka factors and other cellular reprogramming factors. 

A third party characterization of Plurisomes has revealed growth factors signaling metabolic rejuvenation, immunoregulation, tumor suppression and reversion, apoptosis, cell repair and growth. You can see details of this characterization study at plurisomes.com 

Plurisomes are an exosome product produced by Stemaid laboratories and administered at Stemaid International Institutes and associate clinics. They are an integral part of pluripotent stem cell therapy and a part of regular applications of exosome therapy at Stemaid Institute in Los Cabos


1. Human embryonic stem cells express a unique set of microRNAs - PubMed

2. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes as a New Therapeutic Strategy for Various Diseases - PubMed

3. Vaccination with human pluripotent stem cells generates a broad spectrum of immunological and clinical responses against colon cancer - PubMed

4. Exosome-based immunotherapy: a promising approach for cancer treatment - Molecular Cancer

5. Exosome-Based Cancer Therapy: Implication for Targeting Cancer Stem Cells


Author: Dr Denisa Rensen

Denisa Rensen, BSc (Double Honours Biology & Philosophy), BA (Clinical Psychology), ND (Naturopathic Medicine), FAARM (Fellowship in Anti Aging & Regenerative Medicine, A4M)

Denisa is the Director of Clinical Development at Stemaid Institute, a medical and research center focusing on degenerative conditions, age reversal medicine, and pluripotent stem cells.

Her expertise in anti-aging and regenerative medicine is creatively fused with her passion for optimal living, consciousness expansion, and futurism. Denisa has lectured and spoken on many conferences, among others she presented at Humanity+ TransVision 2019 in London, Annual Healthy Masters International Conferences in Porto Portugal, and Age Reversal Conference Series in Hawaii, Stockholm and Luxembourg.

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